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4500-Cl CHLORINE (RESIDUAL)*

* Approved by Standard Methods Committee, 1993.

 

4500-Cl G. DPD Colorimetric Method

 

1. General Discussion

 

    a. Principle: This is a colorimetric version of the DPD method and is based on the same principles. Instead of titration with standard ferrous ammonium sulfate (FAS) solution as in the titrimetric method, a colorimetric procedure is used.

    b. Interference: See A.3 and F.1d. Compensate for color and turbidity by using sample to zero photometer. Minimize chromate interference by using the thioacetamide blank correction.

    c. Minimum detectable concentration: Approximately 10 µg Cl as Cl2/L. This detection limit is achievable under ideal conditions; normal working detection limits typically are higher.

 

2. Apparatus

 

    a. Photometric equipment: One of the following is required:

    1) Spectrophotometer, for use at a wavelength of 515 nm and providing a light path of 1 cm or longer.

    2) Filter photometer, equipped with a filter having maximum transmission in the wavelength range of 490 to 530 nm and providing a light path of 1 cm or longer.

    b. Glassware: Use separate glassware, including separate spectrophotometer cells, for free and combined (dichloramine) measurements, to avoid iodide contamination in free chlorine measurement.

 

3. Reagents

 

    See F.2a, b, c, d, e, h, i, and j.

 

4. Procedure

 

    a. Calibration of photometric equipment: Calibrate instrument with chlorine or potassium permanganate solutions.

    1) Chlorine solutions – Prepare chlorine standards in the range of 0.05 to 4 mg/L from about 100 mg/L chlorine water standardized as follows: Place 2 mL acetic acid and 10 to 25 mL chlorine-demand-free water in a flask. Add about 1 g KI. Measure into the flask a suitable volume of chlorine solution. In choosing a convenient volume, note that 1 mL 0.025N Na2S2O3 titrant (see B.2d) is equivalent to about 0.9 mg chlorine. Titrate with standardized 0.025N Na2S2O3 titrant until the yellow iodine color almost disappears. Add 1 to 2 mL starch indicator solution and continue titrating to disappearance of blue color.

    Determine the blank by adding identical quantities of acid, KI, and starch indicator to a volume of chlorine-demand-free water corresponding to the sample used for titration. Perform blank titration A or B, whichever applies, according to B.3d.

 

                                                                  (A + B) X N X 35.45

                                  mg Cl as Cl2/mL =                                        

                                                                        mL sample

 

where:

 

    N = normality of Na2S2O3,

    A = mL titrant for sample,

    B = mL titrant for blank (to be added or subtracted according to required blank titration. See B.3d.).

 

    Use chlorine-demand-free water and glassware to prepare these standards. Develop color by first placing 5 mL phosphate buffer solution and 5 mL DPD indicator reagent in flask and then adding 100 mL chlorine standard with thorough mixing as described in b and c below. Fill photometer or colorimeter cell from flask and read color at 515 nm. Return cell contents to flask and titrate with standard FAS titrant as a check on chlorine concentration.

    2) Potassium permanganate solutions—Prepare a stock solution containing 891 mg KMnO4/1000 mL. Dilute 10.00 mL stock solution to 100 mL with distilled water in a volumetric flask. When 1 mL of this solution is diluted to 100 mL with distilled water, a chlorine equivalent of 1.00 mg mg/L will be produced in the DPD reaction. Prepare a series of KMnO4 standards covering the chlorine equivalent range of 0.05 to 4 mg/L. Develop color by first placing 5 mL phosphate buffer and 5 mL DPD indicator reagent in flask and adding 100 mL standard with thorough mixing as described in b and c below. Fill photometer or colorimeter cell from flask and read color at 515 nm. Return cell contents to flask and titrate with FAS titrant as a check on any absorption of permanganate by distilled water.

    Obtain all readings by comparison to color standards or the standard curve before use in calculation.

    b. Volume of sample: Use a sample volume appropriate to the photometer or colorimeter. The following procedure is based on using 10-mL volumes; adjust reagent quantities proportionately for other sample volumes. Dilute sample with chlorine-demand-free water when total chlorine exceeds 4 mg/L.

    c. Free chlorine: Place 0.5 mL each of buffer reagent and DPD indicator reagent in a test tube or photometer cell. Add 10 mL sample and mix. Read color immediately (Reading A).

    d. Monochloramine: Continue by adding one very small crystal of KI (about 0.1 mg) and mix. If dichloramine concentration is expected to be high, instead of small crystal add 0.1 mL (2 drops) freshly prepared KI solution (0.1 g/100 mL). Read color immediately (Reading B).

    e. Dichloramine: Continue by adding several crystals of KI (about 0.1 g) and mix to dissolve. Let stand about 2 min and read color (Reading C).

    f. Nitrogen trichloride: Place a very small crystal of KI (about 0.1 mg) in a clean test tube or photometer cell. Add 10 mL sample and mix. To a second tube or cell add 0.5 mL each of buffer and indicator reagents; mix. Add contents to first tube or cell and mix. Read color immediately (Reading N).

    g. Chromate correction using thioacetamide: Add 0.5 mL thioacetamide solution (F.2i) to 100 mL sample. After mixing, add buffer and DPD reagent. Read color immediately. Add several crystals of KI (about 0.1 g) and mix to dissolve. Let stand about 2 min and read color. Subtract the first reading from Reading A and the second reading from Reading C and use in calculations.

    h. Simplified procedure for total chlorine: Omit Step d above to obtain monochloramine and dichloramine together as combined chlorine. To obtain total chlorine in one reading, add the full amount of KI at the start, with the specified amounts of buffer reagent and DPD indicator. Read color after 2 min.   

 

5. Calculation

 

Reading NCl3 Absent NCl3 Present
A Free Cl Free Cl
B – A NH2Cl NH2Cl
C – B NHCl2 NHCl2 + ˝NCl3
N –– Free Cl + ˝NCl3
2(N – A) –– NCl3
C – N –– NHCl2

                            

                               

    In the event that monochloramine is present with NCl3, it will be included in Reading N, in which case obtain NCl3 from 2(NB).

 

 

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6. Bibliography

 

    See F.6.

 

©Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. 20th Ed. American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, Water Environment Federation.